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Are extra-innings contests evenly matched? (Mets Game 14)
*April 21, 2016*

*Posted by tomflesher in Baseball, Economics.*

Tags: extra innings, Mets game 14, probability, statistics

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Tags: extra innings, Mets game 14, probability, statistics

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The Mets lost to the Phillies in 11 innings last night. That was a surprising result – based on the run scoring in the first two games, the Pythagorean expectation for the same Mets team facing the same Phillies team would have been around 95.5%. Even going into extra innings seemed to be a stretch with **Bartolo Colon** pitching. Plus, the Phillies were in the bottom of the league in extra innings last year.

**Addison Reed** blew his first save of the year when he allowed a single to **Peter Bourjos** that scored **David Lough**. Despite strong performances from **Antonio Bastardo** and **Jim Henderson**, **Hansel Robles** allowed a double, a wild pitch, and a single that brought **Freddy Galvis** home.

Once we hit the tenth inning, it’s evidence that the teams are evenly matched, right? Not necessarily. in 2015, there were 212 extra-innings games. The home team won 111 of them, about 52.4%. That’s obviously higher than expected, but keep in mind that if this were a fifty-fifty coin flip we’d expect at least 111 wins around 22.5% of the time. Where it gets interesting is that the home team has (with the exception of 2014) consistently won over half those games, but that the more games that are played, the better visitors do. Since 2006, 2144 extra-innings games have been played with teams winning 1130 of them for a .527 winning percentage; that’s something that, if this truly is a 50-50 proposal, should only happen by chance 0.6% of the time.

Year | G | W | L | perc |

2006 | 185 | 105 | 80 | 0.568 |

2007 | 220 | 117 | 103 | 0.532 |

2008 | 208 | 108 | 100 | 0.519 |

2009 | 195 | 106 | 89 | 0.544 |

2010 | 220 | 116 | 104 | 0.527 |

2011 | 237 | 134 | 103 | 0.565 |

2012 | 192 | 96 | 96 | 0.500 |

2013 | 243 | 125 | 118 | 0.514 |

2014 | 232 | 112 | 120 | 0.483 |

2015 | 212 | 111 | 101 | 0.524 |

Total | 2144 | 1130 | 1014 | 0.527 |

One other result gives us pause: from 2006-2015, 24297 games were played and the home team won 13171 of them. That’s a considerable home field advantage, since all teams play half their games on the road and half at home. That corresponds to a .542 win probability for any home team. If that, rather than .500, is the expected win rate for a home team, then teams perform significantly worse in extra innings.

In other words, though the home team still has an advantage, that advantage shrinks once we hit the tenth inning.

The Mets are idle tonight. They’ll pick up in Atlanta on Friday.

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What does a long game do to teams?
*April 13, 2015*

*Posted by tomflesher in Baseball.*

Tags: extra innings, file drawer, linear model, linear regression, Red Sox, Yankees

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Tags: extra innings, file drawer, linear model, linear regression, Red Sox, Yankees

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Friday, the Red Sox took a 19-inning contest from the Yankees. Both teams have the unfortunate circumstance of finishing a game around 2:15 A.M. and having to be back on the field at 1:05 PM. Everyone, including the announcers, discussed how tired the teams would be; in particular, first baseman **Mark Teixeira** spent a long night on the bag to keep backup first baseman and apparent emergency pitcher **Garrett Jones** fresh, leading **Alex Rodriguez** to make his first career appearance at first base on Saturday.

Teixeira wasn’t the only player to sit out the next day – center fielders **Jacoby Ellsbury** and **Mookie Betts**, catchers **Brian McCann** and **Sandy Leon**, and most of the bullpen all sat out, among others. The Yankees called up pitcher **Matt Tracy** for a cup of coffee and sent **Chasen Shreve** down, then swapped Tracy back down to Scranton for **Kyle Davies**. Boston activated starter **Joe Kelly** from the disabled list, sending winning pitcher **Steven Wright** down to make room. Shreve and Wright each had solid outings, with Wright pitching five innings with 2 runs and Shreve pitching 3 1/3 scoreless.

All those moves provide some explanation for a surprising result. Interested in what the effect of these long games are, I dug up all of the games from 2014 that lasted 14 innings or more. In a quick and dirty data set, I traced the scores for each team in their next games along with the number of outs pitched and the length in minutes of the game.

I fitted two linear models and two log models: two each with the next game’s runs as the dependent variable and two each with the difference in runs (next game’s runs – long game’s runs) as the dependent variable. Each used the length of the game in minutes, the number of outs, the average runs scored by the team during 2014, and an indicator variable for the presence of a designated hitter in each game. For each dependent variable, I modeled all variables in a linear form once and the natural log of outs and the natural log of the length of the game once.

With runs scored as the dependent variable, nothing was significant. That is, no variable correlated strongly with an increase or decrease in the number of runs scored.

With a run difference model, the length of the game in minutes became marginally significant. For the linear model, extending the length of the game by one minute lowers the difference in runs by about .043 runs – that is, normalizing for the number of runs scored the previous day, extending the game by one minute lowered the runs the next day by about .043. In the semilog model, extending the game by about 1% lowered the run difference by about 14; this was offset by an extremely high intercept term. This is a very high semielasticity, and both coefficients had p-values between .01 and .015. Nothing else was even close.

With all of the usual caveats about statistical analysis, this shows that teams are actually pretty good at bouncing back from long games, either due to the fact that most of the time they’re playing the same team (so teams are equally fatigued) or due to smart roster moves. Either way, it’s a surprise.

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Reader Questions: Which teams do the worst in extra innings?
*July 28, 2014*

*Posted by tomflesher in Baseball.*

Tags: extra innings, free baseball, reader questions

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Tags: extra innings, free baseball, reader questions

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Occasionally *the World’s Worst Sports Blog* likes to answer reader questions, which come in either by email at TheBadEconomist@gmail.com or through search engine queries. Today’s reader question: *Which teams do the worst in extra innings? *There are three measures we can take to see which teams are really the worst in extra innings.

The first is to look at the bare number of extra-innings losses. The Miami Marlins, with an extra-innings record of 6-9, hold that honor. That gives them an extra-innings win-loss percentage of .400, which isn’t great, but it’s well within the realm of chance. In fact, if extra-innings games really are a statistical crapshoot, then margin of error for 15 games is about .130.

There are a few teams that do worse in extra innings than Miami, assuming you ignore the number of games played. Both the Texas Rangers and the Toronto Blue Jays are 1-3 in extras for a win-loss of .250, and the Washington Nationals and Los Angeles Dodgers aren’t much better with records of 3-8 and attendant win percentages of .273. Those are still within the margin of error for such a small sample size. In fact, almost no teams are statistically better than chance in extra innings – only the Orioles, with a .786 win-loss mark in 14 games, are statistically outside the margin of error.

There are a few teams that are much worse than even their scores would lead us to expect. These are teams with really lousy pythagorean luck – that is, their runs allowed and runs scored predict they’d have a much better record than expected.

The unluckiest team so far has been the Chicago White Sox, with a Pythagorean expectation in extra-innings games of .450 and an actual win percentage of .286, for a mark of -.164. Texas and Toronto each come in at .159 and .156, respectively, with the Dodgers, the Nationals, the Reds, the Mariners, and the Cubs all coming in at -.100 or worse. The Giants are the luckiest team, with a luck number of .222.

What reader questions would you like me to address? Use the form below to make a request!

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At the other end…
*June 22, 2010*

*Posted by tomflesher in Baseball.*

Tags: Andre Ethier, As, Cedrick Bowers, Diamondbacks, Esmerling Vasquez, extra innings, free baseball, home runs, Joey Votto, Michael Wuertz, Ramon Hernandez, Rangers, Reds, Scott Rolen, weird lines

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Tags: Andre Ethier, As, Cedrick Bowers, Diamondbacks, Esmerling Vasquez, extra innings, free baseball, home runs, Joey Votto, Michael Wuertz, Ramon Hernandez, Rangers, Reds, Scott Rolen, weird lines

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Although AJ Burnett had a bad first inning last night, the Oakland As had a bad tenth inning. After taking a 2-2 game into extra innings, the Cincinnati Reds knocked three out of the park against pitchers **Michael Wuertz** and **Cedrick Bowers**. The first was hit by **Ramon Hernandez**; **Joey Votto** and **Scott Rolen** went deep back to back. Although extra-inning home runs aren’t very rare (there have been 35 so far this year), only three pitchers have surrendered more than one, and neither of the other two (**Chad Durbin** and **Matt Belisle**) gave them both up on the same night.

Last year, everyone’s favorite balk-off artist, Arizona’s **Esmerling Vasquez**, gave up two home runs in extra innings against the Texas Rangers on June 25th. Those were two of 83 free-baseball homers in 2009. Extra-innings home runs are more common in the tops of innings, because in a tied game a home run for the home team is a walk-off whereas the road team will get the chance to capitalize on their momentum, but I would have expected the proportions to be much more different than they are. In 2009, for example, of those 83, only 44 were hit by the away team with 39 hit by the home team (and 33 of those were game-enders).

So far, no batter has more than one extra-innings home run this year, but last year there were several. **Andre Ethier** led the pack with 3, with a bunch of batters who had 2.